International Boxing Hall of Fame

Jack Dempsey

"The Manassa Mauler"

"The bronzed and muscled youngster had seemed to toil for an age as he hacked his way through the vast field of competition from the mountains and the deserts of the Old West to the Old Fun City of New York.. There had been spectacular knockouts, laboured and hard-fought victories and the occasional setbacks. Dempsey was never happy with his own work and it riled him that his successes went largely unnoticed in boxing�s sprawling heartland of America, where great champions and great contenders teemed from every nook and cranny."

-- Mike Casey

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Real name William Harrison Dempsey
Nickname(s) Manassa Mauler
Rated at Heavyweight
Nationality Flag of the United States American
Birth date June 24, 1895(1895-06-24)
Birth place Manassa, Colorado
Death date May 31, 1983 (aged 87)
Death place New York City, NY
Stance Orthodox
Boxing record
Total fights 84
Wins 66
Wins by KO 51
Losses 6
Draws 11
No contests 6 [1]

Jack "Manassa Mauler" Dempsey (June 24, 1895 May 31, 1983) was an American boxer who held the world heavyweight title from 1919 to 1926. Dempsey's aggressive style and punching power made him one of the most popular boxers in history. Many of his fights set financial and attendance records.

Early career

Born in Manassa, Colorado, with the name of William Harrison Dempsey, he grew up in a poor family of mixed Irish origin and Native American background. Because his father had difficulty finding work, the family traveled often. He himself dropped out of grade school to work. Dempsey left home at the age of 16, eager to start a better life for himself. Due to his poverty, he frequently had to travel underneath trains and slept in hobo camps. However, Dempsey was a strong, powerful youth who quickly discovered he had a talent for fighting. With the help of his older brother Bernie, he began training to be a professional boxer.

Desperate for money, Dempsey would occasionally go into saloons and challenge for fights saying "I can't sing and I can't dance, but I can lick any SOB in the house." If anyone accepted his challenge, bets would be wagered. According to Dempsey's autobiography, he rarely lost these barroom brawls.

Dempsey's exact fight record is not known because sometimes he boxed under the pseudonym, "Kid Blackie." This practice continued until 1916. In between, he first appeared as "Jack Dempsey" in 1914, after an earlier middleweight boxer Jack (Nonpareil) Dempsey, drawing with Young Herman in six rounds. After that fight, he won six bouts in a row by knockout (as Jack Dempsey), before losing for the first time, on a disqualification in four rounds to Jack Downey. During this early part of his career, Dempsey campaigned in Utah frequently entering fights in towns up and down the Wasatch mountain range and keeping in shape with such sparring partners as Frank VanSickle day after day.

He followed his loss against Downey with a knockout win and two draws versus Johnny Sudenberg in Nevada. Three more wins and a draw followed and then he met Downey again, this time resulting in a four round draw.

Ten wins in a row followed, a streak during which he beat Sudenberg and was finally able to avenge his defeat at the hands of Downey, knocking him out in two. Then, three more non-decisions came (early in boxing, there were no judges to score a fight, so if a fight lasted the full distance, it was called a draw or non-decision, depending on the state or country the fight was being held in).

When the United States entered World War I in 1917, Dempsey worked in a shipyard while continuing to box. After the war, he was accused by some boxing fans of being a draft dodger. It was not until 1920 that he was able to clear his name on that account, when evidence was produced showing he had attempted to enlist in the U.S. Army but had been turned down.

Taking the title

Among his opponents were Fireman Jim Flynn, the only boxer ever to beat Dempsey by a knockout when Dempsey lost to him in the first round (although many boxing historians, including Monte Cox, believe the fight was a "fix"), and Gunboat Smith, formerly a highly ranked contender who had beaten both World Champion Jess Willard and Hall of Famer Sam Langford. Dempsey beat Smith for the third time on a second round KO.

Around this time Dempsey hooked up with Jack "Doc" Kearns, an experienced, clever fight manager who carefully and skillfully guided Dempsey to the top.

In 1918, Dempsey boxed 17 times, going 15�1 with one no decision. He avenged his defeat against Flynn by returning the favor, knocking him out in the first round. Among others he beat were light heavyweight champion Battling Levinsky, who had never been knocked out before Dempsey did so. Among others he beat were Bill Brennan, Fred Fulton, Carl Morris, Billy Miske ("newspaper decision") and Homer Smith.

He began 1919 winning five bouts in a row by knockout in the first round. Then on July 4, he and world heavyweight champion Jess Willard met at Toledo, Ohio, for the world title. Few gave Dempsey a chance against the larger champion and many called this fight a modern David and Goliath. Minutes before the fight started, Kearns informed Dempsey that he had wagered Dempsey's share of the purse on Dempsey winning with a first round knockout. As a result, the first round of the fight was one of the most brutal in boxing history. Dempsey dealt Willard a terrible beating and knocked him down seven times in the first round. Willard had a broken cheekbone, broken jaw, several teeth knocked out, partial hearing loss in one ear, and broken ribs. Kearns' own recollection of the event was the source of the loaded gloves' theory. The 20 January 1964 Sports Illustrated published an article interviewing Dempsey and Willard, on their recollections of the fight and of "Doc" Kearns. Kearns claimed he had applied plaster of paris to the customary wrappings under Dempsey's gloves, and that Dempsey did not seem to notice even when these reinforcements were removed after the fight. Dempsey never granted any credence to Kearns' story.

Under the rules at the time, a fighter was allowed to stand almost over a knocked-down opponent, and hit him again as soon as both knees had left the canvas. Several times Willard was knocked back down as he was trying to rise. Also, modern referees would step in to stop a fight if one of them was clearly defenseless, but the referee of this fight had the attitude that the only ending for a fight is an actual knockout. At the end of the third round the champion's handlers would not let him answer the bell for the fourth round. Although Dempsey had captured the Heavyweight Title, he never collected any money for the fight.

Title defenses

After beating Jess Willard and winning the title, Jack Dempsey traveled around the country, making publicity appearances with circuses, staging exhibitions, and even starring in a low-budget Hollywood movie. Dempsey did not defend his title until September 1920. This was against Billy Miske in Benton Harbor, Michigan. Miske was a good fighter but past his prime when he challenged Jack for the title, and was knocked out in 3 rounds.

Dempsey's second title defense was much tougher, against Bill Brennan in December 1920 at Madison Square Garden, New York City. Brennan had given Dempsey a tough match two years earlier. After 10 rounds, Brennan was actually ahead on points, and Dempsey's left ear was bleeding profusely. Dempsey rebounded to stop Brennan in the 12th round.

The next fight for "The Manassa Mauler" was against Frenchman Georges Carpentier, who had been a war hero during WWI and was extremely popular on both sides of the Atlantic. The bout was shrewdly promoted by Tex Rickard, emphasizing the differences between the two men, and George Bernard Shaw, who claimed that Carpentier was "the greatest boxer in the world" and stacked the odds 50 to 1 against Dempsey.[2] The anticipation for this bout was tremendous.

Dempsey-Carpentier took place on July 2, 1921 at Boyle's Thirty Acres, Jersey City, New Jersey, generating the first million dollar gate in boxing history. A crowd of 91,000 watched the fight. Though it was deemed "the Fight of the Century," and Carpentier was favored 50 to 1, the match was not nearly as close as many assumed it would be. RCA arranged for live coverage of the match making the event the first national radio broadcast reaching mostly homemade radio sets after first being telegraphed to KDKA for broadcast.[3]

Carpentier got off to a fast start and reportedly even wobbled Dempsey with a hard right in the 2nd round. A reporter at ringside, however, counted twenty-five punches from Dempsey in a single thirty-one second exchange soon after he was supposedly injured by the right.[2] Carpentier also broke his thumb in that round, which crippled his chances. In the 3rd, the bigger, stronger Dempsey began to take charge and administered a brutal beating to Georges. The Frenchman was eventually stopped in the 4th round.

Dempsey did not defend his title again until July 1923 against Tommy Gibbons in Shelby, Montana. Gibbons was a skilled, clever boxer, but was not powerful enough against the bigger, stronger Dempsey, who won a 15 round decision.

The last successful title defense for Dempsey was in September 1923 at New York's Polo Grounds. The opponent was the huge, powerful, yet limited contender Luis Angel Firpo, from Argentina. Attendance was 85,000, with another 20,000 trying to get inside the arena. Dempsey won via a 2nd round KO, but it was an exciting battle. Firpo was knocked down repeatedly yet continued to battle back, even knocking Dempsey down twice. The second time Dempsey was floored he went sailing head first through the ring ropes, landing on a reporter's typewriter, and taking several more seconds than the ten stipulated by the rules. This scene is one of the most memorable in sports history. (This fight was so important that it was transmitted live to Buenos Aires by radio, and people gathered in the streets to listen to it through primitive amplifiers.)

These fights, plus his many exhibitions, movies and endorsements, had made Dempsey one of the richest athletes in the world.

Time off from boxing

After the Firpo brawl, Dempsey did not defend his title for another 3 years. There was pressure from the public and the media for Dempsey to defend his title against black contender Harry Wills. Politics and racial fears prevented the Dempsey-Wills bout. There is disagreement among boxing historians as to whether Dempsey avoided Wills. Dempsey always claimed he was willing. Instead of defending his title, Dempsey continued to earn money by boxing exhibitions, making movies and endorsing products. Dempsey also did a lot of traveling, spending and partying. During this time away from competitive fighting, Dempsey married actress Estelle Taylor, and broke up with his long-time trainer/manager Jack "Doc" Kearns. This break-up did not go smoothly, and Kearns repeatedly sued Dempsey for huge sums of money.


Loss of title and the "Long Count"

In September 1926, Dempsey fought Irish-American former U.S. Marine Gene Tunney in Philadelphia. Tunney was an excellent boxer who had lost only once in his career. Nevertheless, Tunney was still considered the underdog.

In a big upset, Dempsey lost his title on points in ten rounds. No longer displaying his legendary punching power or hand speed, Dempsey was easily outboxed by the slick Tunney who would dodge, and then let loose with a salvo of punches of his own. The attendance for this fight was a record 120,557, the second largest attendance ever for a non-automobile sporting event (the 1950 soccer world cup finals between Brazil and Uruguay had 150,000+ spectators). When the battered Dempsey returned to his dressing room, he explained the defeat to his film actress wife Estelle Taylor by saying, "Honey, I just forgot to duck." This phrase was later used by President Ronald Reagan to his wife after Reagan was shot during a failed attempt on his life in 1981.

Dempsey contemplated retiring, but after a few months of rest decided to try a comeback. In July 1927, at Yankee Stadium, he knocked out future heavyweight champion Jack Sharkey in the seventh round of an elimination bout for a title shot against Tunney. Sharkey was beating Dempsey until the end, when the fight ended controversially. Dempsey had been hitting Sharkey below the belt, and Sharkey turned to the referee to complain, leaving himself unprotected. Dempsey took advantage and crashed a left hook onto Sharkey's chin, knocking him out cold. The referee then counted out Sharkey.

The Tunney rematch took place in Chicago, Illinois, on September 22, 364 days after losing his title to Tunney in their first bout. This fight generated even more interest than the Carpentier and Firpo bouts, generating an amazing 2 million dollar gate, a record that stood for many years.It is said that Al Capone offered Dempsey that he could fix the rematch, but he would not hear of it. Millions of people around the country listened to the bout on the radio, and hundreds of reporters covered the event. Tunney was paid a record one million dollars for the Dempsey rematch. Dempsey earned about half that.

Dempsey was losing the fight on points when he knocked Tunney down with a left hook to the chin in the seventh round, and landed several more punches. A new rule for boxing at the time mandated that when a fighter knocks down an opponent, he must immediately go to a neutral corner. But Dempsey seemed to have forgotten that rule (compare his fight with Willard where he almost stood over his downed opponent ready to strike again) and refused to immediately move to the neutral corner when instructed by the referee. The referee had to escort Dempsey to the neutral corner, which bought Tunney at least an extra five seconds to recover.

The official timekeeper for the fight counted the time Tunney stayed down as 14 seconds. But, after Dempsey finally went to a neutral corner, the referee started his count, and Tunney got up at the referee's count of nine. Dempsey tried to finish Tunney off before the round ended, but he failed to do so. A fully recovered Tunney dropped Dempsey for a count of one in round eight, easily won the final two rounds of the fight, and retained the title on a unanimous decision. Ironically, the new rule (which was not yet universal) was requested during negotiations by members of the Dempsey camp. Another discrepancy was the fact that when Tunney knocked Dempsey down, the referee started the count immediately, not waiting for Tunney to move to a neutral corner.[1] Because of the controversial nature of the fight, it remains known in history as the fight of "The Long Count."


He retired after this bout and made countless exhibition bouts. Dempsey's benevolence was also noteworthy. In June 1932, he sponsored the "Ride of Champions" bucking horse event at Reno, Nevada; the Dempsey Trophy went to legendary bronc rider Pete Knight. In 1935, he opened Jack Dempsey's Broadway Restaurant in New York City's Times Square, which he kept open until 1974. He divorced Taylor and in July 1933 married Broadway singer Hannah Williams (who had just divorced Roger Wolfe Kahn) and had two children with her. Shortly after he divorced Hannah Williams in 1943, the boxer married Deanna Rudin Piatelli, and was married to her at the time of his death.

When the United States entered World War II, Dempsey had an opportunity to refute any remaining criticism of his war record of two decades earlier. He volunteered for national service and was commissioned as a commander in the U.S. Coast Guard, charged with developing a physical fitness program for U.S. soldiers. Later, he served as a morale officer in the Pacific and in 1945 became a hero to many when, at age 49, he insisted on going into battle on Okinawa with a group of men he had trained.

Dempsey wrote a book on boxing, Championship Fighting: Explosive Punching and Aggressive Defense, which was published in 1950. Dempsey was also something of a cross-trainer, he wrestled in training camp and later took judo lessons. He later wrote a book on this, How to Fight Tough, which dealt with close-quarters combat incorporating boxing, wrestling, and jiu-jitsu.

He made friends with Wills and Tunney after retirement, and had many books written about his life. Dempsey even campaigned for Tunney's son John when he ran for the U.S. Senate, from California. One of Dempsey's best friends was Judge John Sirica who presided over the Watergate trials.

In 1977, in collaboration with his stepdaughter Barbara, Jack published his autobiography, titled Dempsey. In May 1983, Dempsey died of natural causes at age 87. His wife Deanna at his side, he told her..."Don't worry honey, I'm too mean to die." He is buried in the Southampton Cemetery, Southampton, New York.

Dempsey is a member of the International Boxing Hall Of Fame. The street where Madison Square Garden is located is called Jack Dempsey Corner.


Professional boxing: 82 Fights 66 Wins 51 KOs 6 Losses 9 Draws 6 No contests[4]


  • "You're in there for three-minute rounds with gloves on and a referee. That's not real fighting."
  • "Honey, I just forgot to duck."
  • "I can't sing and I can't dance, but I can lick any SOB in the house."
  • "A champion is someone who gets up when he can't."
Preceded by
Jess Willard
9th Heavyweight Champion
July 4, 1919 September 23, 1926
Succeeded by
Gene Tunney
Preceded by
Inaugural champion
1st NBA Heavyweight Champion
July 2, 1921 September 23, 1926



Jack Dempsey, The Manassa Mauler

�The Greatest Rough and Tumble Fighter Who Ever Lived�


Cox's Corner Profiles

Jack Dempsey was not only one of the most exciting heavyweight champions in history he was also one of the ring's greatest all time pound for pound fighters. Dempsey has one of the best knockout records in history with an unparalleled winning streak of 32-0 with 28 knockouts, including 17 of them in the first round! His victims included most of the top heavyweight contenders of the period such as Carl Morris, Fred Fulton, Al Palzer, Battling Levinsky, Gunboat Smith, K.O. Bill Brennan, Billy Miske, and his title-winning massacre of big Jess Willard.

Ray Arcel, one of the greatest trainers in boxing history, worked with 18 world champions including Barney Ross, Tony Zale, Ezzard Charles, Roberto Duran, and Larry Holmes. He was in the opposite corner from Joe Louis in 14 of his fights, and he also personally knew and learned from the great Benny Leonard. Arcel has stated that he considered Muhammad Ali, Joe Louis and Jack Dempsey to be the three greatest heavyweights in history and hedged on picking between them, but here is what he said about Dempsey,


�He should�ve been the only heavyweight anybody ever thought of when they thought about the greatest heavyweight champion. I mean he had everything. He could punch, he could box. He was mean and determined.�


Jersey Jones concurs saying, �At his peak Jack Dempsey was the most dynamic and devastating heavyweight this commentator has ever seen�Manassa Jack had speed, strength, better than average boxing skills, lusty punching power and a blazing spirit. His bobbing and weaving style made him a difficult target to hit solidly, but when he was, he had the �ruggedness� to take it. Lithe as a panther and just as savage, Dempsey packed one of the most powerful punching combinations in the game��

Sam Langford, when asked how Harry Wills (whom he fought 18 times in his career) would do against Jack Dempsey, said in the June 5, 1922, Atlanta Constitution "Well if he ever fights Dempsey my money will be on the present champion. Dempsey is the greatest fighter I have ever seen. He hits twice as hard as Jim Jeffries and is as fast in the ring as James J. Corbett."


Jack Dempsey was a sure killer. A fighter with great killer instinct and the ability and will to finish a hurt fighter. Dan Morgan, an old time fight manager who had three world champions said that Dempsey had the three qualities which produce greatness in the fight ring and make a man a fighter for the ages. These are: ferocity, cold-bloodedness, and gameness. He said, "There's no place for pity in the ring. Many fighters can't bear to hammer a helpless opponent in the ring. They don't want to hurt him. But look at Dempsey he was probably the greatest rough and tumble fighter who ever lived."

Dempsey was not at all easy to hit because of his quick inside movement. John Lardner wrote that �Bobbing and weaving is a phrase that will probably be associated with Jack Dempsey until the end of time.�

Dempsey called �the bob�, �a kind of artistic duck.� And he described �the weave� as �a series of slight imaginary slips. As you shuffle toward your opponent, you roll your left shoulder slightly; then your right� then your left and so on�the genuine bob and weaver-and I was one of those-uses it fully. A deep bob and a side sway. I used to slip in under an opponents attack. Once in close I threw my left hook. I had a good one. I�d continue with a barrage of rights, hooks and uppercuts.�

Dempsey a master of the bob and weave. It is a system designed to slip through an opponent�s offense and make him pay for every single mistake he makes. Make him miss and make him pay! Imagine a perpetual motion of the bob and weave, slipping, side-stepping and taking advantage of an opponent�s misses with punishing and countering power punches. At this Dempsey excelled. In his title winning effort against Willard Dempsey circled, circled, and Willard impatiently shot out a long left jab. Dempsey slipped underneath and weaved right, slamming a hard right to the body. It is the same punch that Dempsey used throughout his career (photo L) and Mike Tyson would later make his trademark punch. Dempsey then immediately exploded a left hook that broke the giant Willard's jaw and the onslaught was on.

Once inside Dempsey was virtually a whirlwind of motion. Whirling left, whirling right, getting punching angles and delivering his devastating left hooks, right hands and uppercuts. Dempsey had excellent hand speed, not in the league of Ali, or Louis but just a notch below. With his speed, power, and explosiveness Dempsey was a force to be reckoned with. William Detloff wrote, "Dempsey threw so many punches in rapid succession that it often was difficult to identify the knockout blows."

Dempsey had very under-rated boxing skills. He once described his snapping left lead, discussing the energy transfer that occurred when he sprang into his opponent and how the weight would transfer to the lead foot. He then described �a power line,� running from his shoulder down the length of his arm to his gloved fist. To quote from his instruction book , �As you take your falling step forward, you shoot a half-opened left hand straight along the power line, chin high. As the relaxed left hand speeds towards the target, suddenly close the hand with a convulsive, grabbing snap. Close the left fist with such a terrific grab that when the knuckles smash into the target the fist and arm and the shoulder are frozen steel �hard by the terrific grabbing tension.� This was Dempsey�s very strong shotgun left jab.

Dempsey also had pretty good footwork for his style. He circled and looked for openings, shuffled, then exploded forward, side-stepped left and right and was never off balance. Most people have only seen the opening barrage against Willard, but he was boxing the first half of the round, circling and searching for his opportunity to strike. He had excellent foot speed and was one of the fastest attackers in history.

Dempsey�s best punch was his exploding left hook. It had two explosions, one from the shoulder that generated body force from the hip and one from the bicep that gave it whirling power. It was a punch that was so powerful that Grantland Rice described it as �tornadic.� Many years later Joe Frazier would be described as having, �the best left hook since Dempsey.�

Dempsey had more than just a powering hook, he also had a strong right. He was a definitely a two handed hitter. Dempsey�s right was short, straight and explosive. In many ways Dempsey resembled a slightly smaller version of a young Mike Tyson, aggressive, trying to destroy his opponent from the opening bell, a bobbing and weaving perpetual motion machine, with a better jab and better boxing skills and with more rounds of ring experience.

Jack was a very hungry fighter. Hunger is what makes a man into a good fighter. It makes him fight when a rich man would quit. It makes him have to win just so he can have something to eat to live. That is why in the 20's and 30's there were a lot of Irish, Jewish, and Italian fighters from the ghettoes, they were poor and hungry and had a tougher character. Today most "whites" are from middle or lower middle class environment and not use to tough times. Dempsey lived in tough times and was a very tough character. Fighters like Tunney, Louis, Marciano were almost always main events and they all fought exclusively in scheduled fights in organized programs. Dempsey, like Jack Johnson before him, had to take what came�sometimes he rode the rails all day to get to a fight and fought without having slept or eaten. A different world.

Today it is difficult for people to imagine the harsh times in which the great fighters of the past lived. Jack Dempsey said this in �The Ring Magazine�, May 1956,


�Nobody has to go hungry today. There is plenty of work for a man who wants to work. A kid can make plenty of dough for himself doing almost anything. I was hungry. I had to fight my way along. Freights and the like, fight, fight all the time. The life was tough, but it hardened you.�


Grantland Rice quoted Dempsey as saying, �When I was a young fellow (he started fighting at 15 against bigger and older opponents) I was knocked down plenty. I wanted to stay down, but I couldn�t. I had to collect the two dollars for winning or go hungry. I had to get up. I was one of those hungry fighters. You could have hit me on the chin with a sledgehammer for five dollars. When you havn�t eaten for two days you�ll understand.�

The Mauler had a great chin and was able to fight well when hurt and recovery quickly from damaging punches. Gene Tunney said of him, "Jack could recover faster than any man I ever fought. He was dangerous with a five-second interval."

Dempsey�s ability to recover quickly should come as no surprise. Dempsey, as we have learned, from the time of his youth was fighting to literally be able to eat, he had to get up and fight while hurt. He had to. Dempsey won a number of fights in a �proverbial fog� not even remembering what happened but battering his opponent�s until they fell. Dempsey�s will to win is unsurpassed by modern fighters and should be classified, at the very least, with that of Muhammad Ali.

Backing up Gene�s testimony is newspapermen Frank G. Menke�s retelling of the Dempsey-Firpo slugfest, won in exciting fashion by knockout,

�Every ounce of the South American�s (Firpo's) gigantic body was concentrated in that one blow-one of the hardest ever landed, in the annals of the ring. The knees of the world�s champion buckled and he pitched forward�but as Dempsey pitched forward, Firpo was so close that the champion fell against the body of the giant. Instinct made him grab and hold. Firpo tried to shake off Dempsey. But before he could achieve his purpose the brief rest saved Dempsey. Strength and power came back to Dempsey�s legs and the floodgates of reserve energy refreshed and revived him�Dempsey afterward said he remembered nothing after that first pile driver blow. He had been hit and hurt by the rushing, tearing form before him. And that form must be destroyed!�

Jack Dempsey�s destruction of Jess Willard on July 4, 1919 remains one of the most violent outbursts of sheer aggression and power ever witnessed in a boxing ring. It ranks along with Joe Louis one-round annihilation of Max Schmeling and Mike Tyson�s 91-second demolition of Michael Spinks as the greatest massacre in the history of heavyweight boxing.

In 1950, the Associated Press conducted a poll of sportswriters to name the greatest fighter of all-time, pound-for-pound, and Dempsey was the runaway winner, collecting 251 votes. [Joe Louis finished a distant second with 109 votes; Henry Armstrong was third with 13.] The sportswriters of the first half of the century named Dempsey as the greatest fighter they had ever seen.

As late as 1962, in the Dec 1962 Ring Magazine, a panel of 40 boxing writers tabbed Dempsey as the greatest heavyweight of all time.

Bert Sugar rates Jack Dempsey as the # 1 all time pound for pound heavyweight. Nat Fleischer rated him #4 on his all time heavyweight list. He also considered Dempsey the best infighter and best two handed hitter among all heavyweight champions. Charley Rose rated him # 3. Eric Jorgensen rates him #2. Cox's Corner rates him # 6.

This is a revised version of an earlier article by Monte Cox and Eric Jorgensen.

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